Today we are introducing some free e-books related to Live Sound Reinforcement. The books which are in pdf format is the educational publications of various. APPLICATION 1 - LIVE SOUND REINFORCEMENT. USING DELAY IN REINFORCEMENT SYSTEMS. The drawing below illustrates how to calculate delay. SOUND. REINFORCEMENT. HANDBOOK. Written For Yamaha By. Gary Davis & Ralph . |This Handbook is dedicated to the Sound REİnfoRCEMENT Industry,. And to all those Live performance setup using three keyboard synthesizers.

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It became a standard text in several college courses due to its detailed discussions of the basics of sound reinforcement. During the ensuing decade, Yamaha. Microphone techniques (the selection and placement of microphones) have a major influence on the audio quality of a sound reinforcement system. possibly mixer, choices made for recording are equally applicable in live sound reinforcement. Remember, there are few rules in audio – if it sounds good to you, .

Absorption - Some materials absorb sound rather than reflect it. Again, the efficiency of absorption is dependent on the wavelength. Thin absorbers like carpet and acoustic ceiling tiles can affect high frequencies only, while thick absorbers such as drapes, padded furniture and specially designed bass traps are required to attenuate low frequencies.

Reverberation in a room can be controlled by adding absorption: the more absorption the less reverberation.

Yamaha - Sound Reinforcement Handbook.pdf

Clothed humans absorb mid and high frequencies well, so the presence or absence of an audience has a significant effect on the sound in an otherwise reverberant venue. Diffraction - A sound wave will typically bend around obstacles in its path which are smaller than its wavelength. Because a low frequency sound wave is much longer than a high frequency wave, low frequencies will bend around objects that high frequencies cannot.

The effect is that high frequencies tend to have a higher directivity and are more easily blocked while low frequencies are essentially omnidirectional. In sound reinforcement, it is difficult to get good directional control at low frequencies for both microphones and loudspeakers. Refraction - The bending of a sound wave as it passes through some change in the density of the environment. This effect is primarily noticeable outdoors at large distances from loudspeakers due to atmospheric effects such as wind or temperature gradients.

Documents Similar To Yamaha - Sound Reinforcement Handbook.pdf

The sound will appear to bend in a certain direction due to these effects. Direct vs. The sound will appear to bend in a certain direction due to these effects. Direct vs. Ambient Sound A very important property of direct sound is that it becomes weaker as it travels away from the sound source.

The amount of change is controlled by the inverse-square law which states that the level change is inversely proportional to the square of the distance change. When the distance from a sound source doubles, the sound level decreases by 6dB. This is a noticeable decrease. For example, if the sound from a guitar amplifier is dB SPL at 1 ft.

Conversely, when the distance is cut in half the sound level increases by 6dB: It will be dB at 6 inches and dB at 3 inches! On the other hand, the ambient sound in a room is at nearly the same level throughout the room. This is because the ambient sound has been reflected many times within the room until it is essentially nondirectional. Reverberation is an example of nondirectional sound. For this reason the ambient sound of the room will become increasingly apparent as a microphone is placed further away from the direct sound source.

In every room, there is a distance measured from the sound source where the direct sound and the reflected or reverberant sound become equal in intensity. The s to early s was a period of innovation in loudspeaker design with many sound reinforcement companies designing their own speakers. The basic designs were based on commonly known designs and the speaker components were commercial speakers.

The areas of innovation were in cabinet design, durability, ease of packing and transport, and ease of setup. This period also saw the introduction of the hanging or "flying" of main loudspeakers at large concerts.

During the s the large speaker manufacturers started producing standard products using the innovations of the s. These were mostly smaller two way systems with 12", 15" or double 15" woofers and a high frequency driver attached to a high frequency horn.

The s also saw the start of loudspeaker companies focused on the sound reinforcement market. The s saw the introduction of Line arrays , where long vertical arrays of loudspeakers with a smaller cabinet are used to increase efficiency and provide even dispersion and frequency response. This period also saw the introduction of inexpensive molded plastic speaker enclosures mounted on tripod stands. Many feature built-in power amplifiers which made them practical for non-professionals to set up and operate successfully.

Microphone Techniques Live Sound Reinforcement SHURE .pdf

The sound quality available from these simple 'powered speakers' varies widely depending on the implementation.

Many sound reinforcement loudspeaker systems incorporate protection circuitry, preventing damage from excessive power or operator error. Positive temperature coefficient resistors, specialized current-limiting light bulbs, and circuit-breakers were used alone or in combination to reduce driver failures.

XLR connectors are still the standard input connector on active loudspeaker cabinets. The three different types of transducers are subwoofers , compression drivers, and tweeters.

They all feature the combination of a voicecoil , magnet , cone or diaphragm , and a frame or structure. Loudspeakers have a power rating in watts which indicates their maximum power capacity, to help users avoid overpowering them. Around the mid s trapezoidal -shaped enclosures became popular as this shape allowed many of them to be easily arrayed together. An 18" Mackie subwoofer cabinet. A number of companies are now making lightweight, portable speaker systems for small venues that route the low-frequency parts of the music electric bass, bass drum, etc.

Routing the low-frequency energy to a separate amplifier and subwoofer can substantially improve the bass-response of the system. Also, clarity may be enhanced, because low-frequency sounds take a great deal of power to amplify; with only a single amplifier for the entire sound spectrum, the power-hungry low-frequency sounds can take a disproportionate amount of the sound system's power.

Professional sound reinforcement speaker systems often include dedicated hardware for safely "flying" them above the stage area, to provide more even sound coverage and to maximize sight lines within performance venues.

Monitor loudspeakers[ edit ] A JBL floor monitor speaker cabinet with a 12" 30 cm woofer and a "bullet" tweeter. Most monitor cabinets have a metal grille or woven plastic mesh to protect the loudspeaker. Monitor loudspeakers , also called "foldback" loudspeakers, are speaker cabinets which are used onstage to help performers to hear their singing or playing.

As such, monitor speakers are pointed towards a performer or a section of the stage. They are generally sent a different mix of vocals or instruments than the mix that is sent to the main loudspeaker system.

Documents Similar To Yamaha - Sound Reinforcement Handbook.pdf

Monitor loudspeaker cabinets are often a wedge shape, directing their output upwards towards the performer when set on the floor of the stage. Two-way, dual driver designs with a speaker cone and a horn are common, as monitor loudspeakers need to be smaller to save space on the stage. These loudspeakers typically require less power and volume than the main loudspeaker system, as they only need to provide sound for a few people who are in relatively close proximity to the loudspeaker.

Some manufacturers have designed loudspeakers for use either as a component of a small PA system or as a monitor loudspeaker.

In the s, a number of manufacturers produced powered monitor speakers, which contain an integrated amplifier. Using monitor speakers instead of in ear monitors typically results in an increase of stage volume, which can lead to more feedback issues and progressive hearing damage for the performers in front of them.

The use of monitor loudspeakers, active with an integrated amplifier or passive, requires more cabling and gear on stage, resulting in an even more cluttered stage. These factors, amongst others, have led to the increasing popularity of in-ear monitors.

In-ear monitors[ edit ] A pair of universal fit in-ear monitors. This particular model is the Etymotic ER-4S In-ear monitors are headphones that have been designed for use as monitors by a live performer. They are either of a "universal fit" or "custom fit" design. The universal fit in ear monitors feature rubber or foam tips that can be inserted into virtually anybody's ear.

Custom fit in ear monitors are created from an impression of the users ear that has been made by an audiologist.

In-ear monitors are almost always used in conjunction with a wireless transmitting system, allowing the performer to freely move about the stage while maintaining their monitor mix. In-ear monitors offer considerable isolation for the performer using them, meaning that the monitor engineer can craft a much more accurate and clear mix for the performer. With in-ear monitors, each performer can be sent their own customized mix; although this was also the case with monitor speakers, the in-ear monitors of one performer cannot be heard by the other musicians.

A downside of this isolation is that the performer cannot hear the crowd or the comments other performers on stage that do not have microphones e. This has been remedied by larger productions by setting up a pair of microphones on each side of the stage facing the audience that are mixed into the in-ear monitor sends.

The reduction or elimination of loudspeakers other than instrument amplifiers on stage has allowed for cleaner and less problematic mixing situations for both the front of house and monitor engineers. Audio feedback is greatly reduced and there is less sound reflecting off the back wall of the stage out into the audience, which affects the clarity of the mix the front of house engineer is attempting to create.

Applications[ edit ] Sound reinforcement systems are used in a broad range of different settings, each of which poses different challenges. Rental systems[ edit ] Staff set up sound system speaker cabinets for an outdoor event. Audio visual AV rental systems have to be able to withstand heavy use, and even abuse from renters.

For this reason, rental companies tend to own speaker cabinets which are heavily braced and protected with steel corners, and electronic equipment such as power amplifiers or effects are often mounted into protective road cases. As well, rental companies tend to select gear which has electronic protection features, such as speaker-protection circuitry and amplifier limiters. As well, rental systems for non-professionals need to be easy to use and set up, and they must be easy to repair and maintain for the renting company.

From this perspective, speaker cabinets need to have easy-to-access horns, speakers, and crossover circuitry, so that repairs or replacements can be made. Some rental companies often rent powered amplifier-mixers, mixers with onboard effects, and powered subwoofers for use by non-professionals, which are easier to set up and use. Many touring acts and large venue corporate events will rent large sound reinforcement systems that typically include one or more audio engineers on staff with the renting company.

In the case of rental systems for tours, there are typically several audio engineers and technicians from the rental company that tour with the band to set up and calibrate the equipment. The individual that mixes the band is often selected and provided by the band, as they have become familiar with the various aspects of the show and have worked with the act to establish a general idea of how they want the show to sound.

The mixing engineer for an act sometimes also happens to be on staff with the rental company selected to provide the gear for the tour. Live music clubs and dance events[ edit ] A front-of-house sound engineer with a Digidesign D-Show Profile live digital mixer and a computer monitor. Setting up sound reinforcement for live music clubs and dance events often poses unique challenges, because there is such a large variety of venues which are used as clubs, ranging from former warehouses or music theaters to small restaurants or basement pubs with concrete walls.

Dance events may be held in huge warehouses, aircraft hangars or outdoor spaces. In some cases, clubs are housed in multi-story venues with balconies or in "L"-shaped rooms, which makes it hard to get a consistent sound for all audience members.

The solution is to use fill-in speakers to obtain good coverage, using a delay to ensure that the audience does not hear the same sound at different times. The number of subwoofer speaker cabinets and power amplifiers dedicated to low-frequency sounds used in a club depends on the type of club, the genres of music played there live or via a DJ , and the size of the venue.

A small coffeehouse where traditional folk, bluegrass or jazz groups are the main performers may have no subwoofers, and instead rely on the full-range main PA speakers to reproduce bass sounds.

On the other hand, a club where hard rock or heavy metal music bands play or a nightclub where house music DJs play dance music may have multiple large 18" subwoofers in big cabinets and powerful amplifiers dedicated for subwoofers, as these genres and music styles typically use powerful, deep bass sound. A DJ gets his decks ready as the speaker cabinets are set up and readied for a dance event. Another challenge with designing sound systems for live music clubs is that the sound system may need to be used for both prerecorded music played by DJs and live music.

If the sound system is optimized for prerecorded DJ music, then it will not provide the appropriate sound qualities or mixing equipment and monitoring equipment needed for live music, and vice versa. A club system designed for DJs needs a DJ mixer and space for record players. Clubs tend to focus on either live music or DJ shows.

However, clubs which feature both types of shows may face challenges providing the desired equipment and set-up for both uses.

In contrast, a live music club needs a mixing board designed for live sound, an onstage monitor system, and a multicore "snake" cable running from the stage to the mixer. Lastly, live music clubs can be a hostile environment for sound gear, in that the air may be hot, humid, and smoky; in some clubs, keeping racks of power amplifiers cool may be a challenge.

Often an air conditioned room just for the amplifiers is utilised. Church sound[ edit ] The Iglesia Los Olivos church. Designing systems in churches and similar religious facilities often poses a challenge, because the speakers may have to be unobtrusive to blend in with antique woodwork and stonework.

In some cases, audio designers have designed custom-painted speaker cabinets so that the speakers will blend in with the church architecture. Some church facilities, such as sanctuaries or chapels are long rooms with low ceilings, which means that additional fill-in speakers are needed throughout the room to give good coverage.

An additional challenge with church SR systems is that, once installed, they are often operated by amateur volunteers from the congregation, which means that they must be easy to operate and troubleshoot. Some mixing consoles designed for houses of worship have automatic mixers, which turn down unused channels to reduce noise, and automatic feedback elimination circuits which detect and notch out frequencies that are feeding back. These features may also be available in multi-function consoles used in convention facilities and multi-purpose venues.

Touring systems[ edit ] Touring sound systems have to be powerful and versatile enough to cover many different halls and venues, and they are available many different sizes and shapes.

Touring systems range from mid-sized systems for bands playing nightclub and other mid-sized venues to large systems for groups playing stadiums , arenas and outdoor festivals. They also need to use "field-replaceable" components such as speakers, horns, and fuses, which are easily accessible for repairs during a tour.

Tour sound systems are often designed with substantial redundancy features, so that in the event of equipment failure or amplifier overheating, the system will continue to function. Touring systems for bands performing for crowds of a few thousand people and up are typically set up and operated by a team of technicians and engineers who travel with the performers to every show. A Meyer line array of speaker cabinets is moved into position at an outdoor concert.

Yamaha - Sound Reinforcement Handbook.pdf

Mainstream bands that are going to perform in mid- to large-sized venues during their tour schedule one to two weeks of technical rehearsal with the entire concert system and production staff, including audio engineers, at hand.

This allows the audio and lighting engineers to become familiar with the show and establish presets on their digital equipment e. Many modern musical groups work with their front of house and monitor mixing engineers during this time to establish what their general idea is of how the show and mix should sound, both for themselves on stage and for the audience. This often involves programming different effects and signal processing for use on specific songs, to make the songs sound somewhat similar to the studio versions.

To manage a show with a lot of effects changes, the mixing engineers for the show often choose to use a digital mixing console so that they can save and automatically recall these many settings in between each song. This time is also used by the system technicians to get familiar with the specific combination of gear that is going to be used on the tour and how it acoustically responds during the show.To reduce excessive cymbal ringing.

Cardioid Microphone-A unidirectional microphone with moderately wide front pickup deg. Omnidirectional The unidirectional microphone is most sensitive to sound arriving from one particular direction and is less sensitive at other directions. The appropriate type, variation, and level of effects is quite subjective and is often collectively determined by a production's audio engineer, artists, bandleader , music producer , or musical director.

Distance factor. MS Mid-Side Comments A front-facing cardioid cartridge and a side-facing bidirectional cartridge are mounted in a single housing. At this distance. Woodwinds Oboe. Pop-A thump of explosive breath sound produced when a puff of air from the mouth strikes the microphone diaphragm.

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