Originally in: O aliciador. Jornal dos Sports. Abr s. momysufphypa.cf anaisdosilel/pt/arquivos/silel/pdf. 5. Santos N. Freud explicaria isso?. Donato Carrisi (Martina Franca, 25 de março de ) é um escritor, roteirista e jornalista Il suggeritore () No Brasil: O aliciador (Editora Record, ); L' ipotesi del Criar um livro · Descarregar como PDF · Versão para impressão. PDF | Two major aspects of Jose Lins do Rego's chronicles were the reference Article (PDF Available) · June with 16 Reads Originally in: O aliciador.
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16 nov. PDF | On Dec 1, , Carlos Osmar Bertero and others published Hierarchy in organizationss. Havia um aliciador de combatentes —. Antônio Fogueteiro. De vital importância para a defesa de Ca nudos era saber o que ocorria em suas vizinhanças. momysufphypa.cf>. 37 As mortes que realmente seriam esperadas pela ação policial e .. números de mortes de uma guerra não declarada: poderosos (aliciadores).
FIA, 10 back to index I hope that I have convinced you that a clear and focused definition of organized crime is important. It is important as a legal definition and for public policy purposes, but it is especially important for research purposes as well.
After all, it is the fruits of the latter research that will inform the former definitions. Related to the general definition, critically important are the distinctions between key concepts such as organized crime and crimes that are organized, between organized crime and mafia, between criminal organizations and other types of criminal groups, and between organized crime and transnational crime.
So what is organized crime? Again, I would repeat that the difficulty lies with the word organized. The attributes of the criminal organizations that make the crimes they commit organized crime include criminal sophistication, structure, self-identification, and the authority of reputation, as well as their size and continuity. These criminal organizations exist largely to profit from providing illicit goods and services in public demand or providing legal goods and services in an illicit manner.
But they may also penetrate the legitimate economy, or in the case of the mafia, assume quasi-governmental roles. However they choose to do it, and whatever they chose to do, their goal remains the same-to make money, as much as they can. Sometimes that can mean seeking political power in order to facilitate their greed, but the bottom line is the same.
The members of a criminal organization may comprise a crime family, a gang, a cartel, or a criminal network, but those labels are not important to the definition. These members may also share certain ethnic or racial identities; but that too is not essential to their being defined as a criminal organization engaged in organized crime.
What is essential to the definition of organized crime is the ability to use, and the reputation for use of violence or the threat of violence to facilitate criminal activities, and in certain instances to gain or maintain monopoly control of particular criminal markets. It is these that are the defining characteristics of organized crime and that best answer the question of just what organized crime is. Finckenauer, back to index Organized crime is crime committed by criminal organizations whose existence has continuity over time and across crimes, and that use systematic violence and corruption to facilitate their criminal activities.
These criminal organizations have varying capacities to inflict economic, physical, psychological, and societal harm.
The greater their capacity to harm, the greater the danger they pose to society. Finckenauer and Voronin, 2 back to index Organized crime is a recognizable, monopolistic, self-perpetuating, hierarchical organization willing to use violence and the corruption of public officials to engage in both traditional vice-related activities and complex criminal enterprises, and it ensures its organizational longevity through ritualistic practices, rules and regulations, organizational tithing, and investment in legitimate businesses.
Grennan and Britz, 15 back to index This book is a reorientation of the study of organized crime away from the popular myths, away from the treatment of organized crime as deviant, aberrant behavior, and toward the study of organized crime as an aspect of the American experience, rather than something divorced from it. Organized crime will be studied from the standpoint of individual and organizational behavior in much the same way a social scientist would study any other organization.
That wave of migration had not been officially commissioned 4 The census notes that the Portuguese were some of the first immigrants to go to Trinidad after the British capture of the island in This is not surprising in view of the centuries-old relationship and Treaty of Windsor between Britain and Portugal, which set the stage and opened the way for the unhindered exchange and traffic of goods, military support and people.
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Publishing Co. Hyamson, The Sephardim of England: Methuen and Co. Whether any Madeirans actually migrated to Trinidad in that year remains unknown up to this point. The Madeiran Archives also possess passport registers for over persons applying to come to Trinidad between and The Arquivo Regional recently published an index of passport registers. Following the abolition of slavery, post-abolition migration became a matter of economic survival for many plantation owners, because of the impending labor problems.
By and large, Portuguese were welcomed wherever they went in the West Indies, mostly because they provided cheap labor, and also because their presence was supposed to act as a buffer between 11 the Africans and Europeans, at least from a socio-economic perspective.
The first Madeiran laborers in the Caribbean arrived in Guyana then British Guiana in , the year after the abolition of slavery which was the same year in which the Azoreans first went to Trinidad. That year was the beginning of both official and unofficial migration of thousands of Madeirans to the region, with over 12, Madeirans going to Guyana from and , the first decade of Portuguese migration to that territory.
The thousands who migrated from Madeira after that time went for personal reasons, mostly in search of their fortunes. Even though the Portuguese authorities had prohibited contract labor of Madeirans in , Madeiran migration to the other territories only began later in and In terms of socio-economic benefits to the British government, planters and laborers, the Guyanese experiment proved to be relatively successful, despite applications, representing at least requerentes, as well as other applications for 46 acompanhantes made by 22 of the requerentes.
These do not include 51 other applications described as inexistentes. Arquivo Regional da Madeira, Lawrence, Barbados: Caribbean Univs. Press, , 9. Heinemann Educational Books, , On a much reduced scale, Trinidad, St. No doubt the Madeirans who migrated to territories other than Guyana had heard about the prosperity of their compatriots in Demerara, one of the main regions of Guyana which became synonymous with Guyana itself, although Portuguese and 13 other migrants went to the regions of Essequibo and Berbice as well.
Although other Portuguese found their way to the Caribbean, including Sephardic Jews in the eighteenth century, and also persons from mainland Portugal and Portuguese territories such as the Azores and Cape Verde, by far the largest number of Portuguese hailed from the Madeira Islands, and comprised both Catholic immigrants and Presbyterian refugees fleeing reli- gious persecution.
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For Madeirans migrating in the nineteenth century, the push factors included socio-economic and political issues, and the pull factors included the promise of economic self-betterment and the promise of supposedly high er wages. Socio-economic factors, as well as so-called overpopulation, had reduced the standard of living to the extent that migration became a matter of survival for many. This crisis was a result of a disease 14 attacking potato crops, which by that time had become a staple.
Later, the decline in the wine market during the s, and the vine diseases in and resulted in widespread unemployment among agricultural wor- kers.
These workers constituted the main group that tended to migrate to the West Indies. Tipografia Espe- rance, In , Madeira, an Atlantic archipelago of , inhabitants, was 16 often described as overpopulated.
According to Nepomuceno, figures for legal migration average persons a year from the s to the s. The aliciadores, that is, those paid to scour the countryside for potential migrants, were crucial in 18 this migratory movement. After the s, family and village chain migra- tion became more and more commonplace, with whole families and neigh- borhoods migrating, as opposed to individuals alone migrating in search of a better life. For other migrants, the push factors also included the religious strife between Catholics and Protestants of , as a result of Dr.
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The pull factors consequently included the pro- mise of religious freedom, particularly in Trinidad, where religious liberty had been proclaimed. What began as the evangelical teaching of the Bible in small schools and the distribution of free medicines and medical care dramatically concluded in a volatile clash of religious denominations. Kalley, a Scottish Protestant medical missionary, had gone to Madeira in , originally seeking a healthy climate for his sick wife.
The couple chose to stay in Madeira, and for several years Dr. Kalley conducted 15 Robert F.
Multicultural History Society of Ontario, , Frederic L. Editorial Caminho, , Editorial Calcamar, , Hundreds of Madeirans converted to Protestantism. These Protestant converts, led by Dr. Robert Reid Kalley, encountered a great deal of hosti- lity and intolerance in Roman Catholic Madeira and were eventually forced to seek asylum abroad. In the early years of Madeiran migration to Trinidad, the Portuguese population there was almost evenly divided between Catholics and Pro- testants. Several also went to other West Indian islands and a few to Guya- na, but by far the largest number went to Trinidad.
However, over seven hundred Madeiran Presbyterians, representing the majority of the early refugees, later moved on from Trinidad to Jacksonville, Springfield and 19 Cf. Robert Reid Kalley, A short statement of Dr. His expulsion from Ma- deira by outrage, etc. James Nisbet, The American and Foreign Chris- tian Union, , When Spain capitulated in , all Catholics in British Trinidad were to be allowed freedom of worship.
Campbell, Cedulants and Capitulants: Paria Publishing Co. Greyfriars Church of Scotland , 4. Some Madeiran Presbyterians stayed in Madeira, and many of those who stayed went underground in order to survive ongoing persecution.
Today their descendants are to be found mainly in Funchal and Machico. Vieira considers the fact that emigration was not due only to socio- economic factors: Some other reasons for emigration, apart from immediate economic difficulties, included desire to flee military ser- vice and to reunite with family members abroad, especially during the twentieth century.
By that time, business possibilities loomed large in Guya- na, Trinidad and elsewhere. Colburn and Co. Presbyterian Board of Publication, c. Cardoso, ; Joyce B. Oficina do Livro, ; William B. Forsyth, The Wolf from Scotland: The Story of Robert Reid Kalley: Pio- neer Missionary Darlington: Robert Reid Kalley , trans. Manuel de Sousa Campos Lisbon: See also Jo-Anne S. From Madeira to Trinidad and to the U. It was no longer the pursuit of agriculture that induced the emigrants to come 25 here at a later period.
By then, too, the flow of refugees had ceased. During the mid-nineteenth century, Guyana alone accounted for 70 percent of all Madeiran migration to the former British 26 Caribbean, official and unofficial. At that time, Madeirans were heading 27 to other destinations, such as Brazil and the United States until , 28 including Hawaii.
By , there were 21, Portuguese citizens in Guya- 29 30 na, which ultimately welcomed some 40, emigrants.
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Migrants to Guyana maintained close ties with Madeira in the early years of migration, and there was eventually some return migration, a phenomenon which oc- curred less frequently in other territories. Given the sheer numbers of migrants to Guyana, it would be impossible to list ship arrivals for that territory.
As far as is known, St. Vincent received over 2, mi- grants in sixteen ships in three years, between November and January 32 About the Portuguese in St.
Vincent, in Day summarized their situation as follows: To sup- ply this deficiency, the Madeirian [sic] immigrant is a most desirable importa- tion; almost acclimated, he suffers next to nothing from the heat, whilst he is a quiet, steady, and much more amiable being than the negro. There are already in St.
Vincent about eight hundred Madeirian [sic] immigrants, and all, save the blacks, are pleased with them. They have their passage paid for them, and as a return, are only required to serve for the first twelvemonth certain, when they receive a lot of ground for cultivation, and two bits, or eightpence cash a day for the whole time, with provisions served out to them, without cost, for the first six months, or until the ground allotted to them is capable of producing.
After the expiration of this period, they daily receive the same sum for their labour, but the provisions are withdrawn, the ground allotted them supplying the greater part of their wants.
The work they do is more neatly done than that of the negro; but as yet they do not do quite so much. Their superior steadiness, however, and higher caste in the scale of humanity, is considered a compensation.
They are extremely civil, and in appearance exceedingly like the Irish peasant, particularly the women. There is a Catholic church with two priests, in Kingston [Kingstown], so that there is no danger 33 of the Portuguese falling off from their orthodoxy. As elsewhere, the migrants were welcomed, but as we shall see, underlying tensions later give rise to full-scale anti-Portuguese riots. It was also suggested that Canary Islanders, many of whom had begun to migrate to Venezuela and later Cuba, be sought after as indentured laborers.
They did not go to Trinidad and Madeirans instead were drafted for local estate labor. Thus the first Madeirans destined for Trinidad arrived in May , following those who went to Guyana and St.
The Portuguese in Trinidad were in fact never indentured as the Indians were. Indenture proper, that is, contracts enforceable by criminal law, was introduced in Trinidad in , after the arrival of the first Por- tuguese.
Before , the contracts of immigrants 34 were enforceable only under the normal law of contract. While they may have worked on sugar, cocoa and coffee estates in the first two years of mi- gration, their contracts were not those defined as indentureship contracts.
Many of the Madeirans in Trinidad quickly forsook field labor in favor of other less strenuous occupations, and some were attracted by the higher 35 wages earned as gardeners and servants. Although Trinidad was the first British Caribbean territory to receive Portuguese migrants from the Azores in as noted earlier, officially speaking, of all the territories, Trinidad received the lowest numbers of mi- grant workers without fixed contracts.
Wood cites a figure of 1, mi- grants in seven shiploads arriving in Trinidad between May and 36 November , a period of only two years.
The following table Table 1 summarizes the early years of Madeiran migration to the Anglophone Caribbean. Reliable statistics are not available 37 38 for St.
Damages to an aggrieved employer from his employee were allowed. Kitts by the same vessel in carrying away their labo- rers to Trinidad; and such is the agent assisted by a renegade Portuguese, employed to entice away the Portuguese laborers from this island [St.
Lafleur, Saint-Claude: Augustine 9 May In , there were 45 Madeirans in Martinique and in Guadeloupe. For the latter, see Registos de Passaportes, vol. Wood, Trinidad in Transition.
The Unsuspected Isle London: Mac- millan, Labor Relations, Power Relations and Race Relations Labor relations, power relations and race relations were all related in the Caribbean context. The racial status of the Portuguese in the West Indies was defined, not on the basis of their ethnic heritage, but on the basis of their socio-economic standing or lack thereof. This was the view of the other Europeans and their descendants, and one ultimately adopted by African descendants in these societies.
The Portuguese are numerically not unimportant but are neither wealthy nor influential being chiefly small shopkeepers and gardeners.
Entirely destitute of all political views or objects, they would cheerfully submit to any changes which did not interfere with their making and hoarding money, but they 41 would never take a single step to carry such changes into effect. While it may be said that Madeirans were generally welcomed in the Carib- bean because of political and economic factors, and because of their poten- tial and actual economic contributions to their host societies, their presence was not always welcomed by members of the working classes, in the main descendants of Africans who had been enslaved on Caribbean estates.
In fact, in both Guyana and St.
Vincent, there were several uprisings against the Portuguese in the nineteenth century. By the twentieth century, any existing anti-Portuguese sentiments took non-violent, non-physical forms, but hostile undercurrents were nevertheless present in some territories.
During the early post-emancipation era and up to the end of the nine- teenth century, there were several anti-Portuguese attacks from to 42 in then British Guiana. Four attacks took place in , , and in Finally, in the twentieth cen- tury, ethnocultural clubs were disallowed in Guyana, despite the existence of Portuguese social and cultural clubs for several years in that territory. Based on government policy aimed at ending all socially entrenched forms of discrimination, all ethnic clubs had to change their names to ones that did not reflect an ethnic base or bias; the Portuguese club therefore became Non Pareil Park, the Chinese club became Cosmos, and the Indian sports club became Everest.
In both the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, there was massive re- migration of many Guyanese Portuguese and others to North America and 41 Gov. Today, the Guyanese Portuguese community has diminished to the extent that it is no longer a distinct and separate community as it was up to the mid-twentieth century, the majority of Guyanese Portuguese constituting a growing diaspora in North America and the U.
In St. Vincent, the first Portuguese were seen as transient migrants by the planters. Because of the types of employment they engaged in, issues of social class and respectability constantly arose.
Like Guyana, the Por- tuguese of St.
Vincent formed a significant new middleman minority, but it took some time before they assimilated into the wider society. Unlike the Portuguese in other territories, those in St. Vincent had a geographical base.For Trinidad, see Jo-Anne S. Of the four territories, in question, only Guyana was considered a real socio-economic success in terms of Portuguese migration. These are researchable questions and analysis of them should not be precluded by the definition of organized crime.
Some Madeiran Presbyterians stayed in Madeira, and many of those who stayed went underground in order to survive ongoing persecution. It was no longer the pursuit of agriculture that induced the emigrants to come 25 here at a later period. Nov 08, P.
Those in other territories were scattered all over their respective ter- ritories, with a tendency to become increasingly urbanized.