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Wundt focused on breaking down mental processes into the most basic components, motivated in part by an analogy to recent advances in chemistry, and its successful investigation of the elements and structure of material. Stanley Hall who studied with Wundt, formed a psychology lab at Johns Hopkins University in Maryland, which became internationally influential.

Hall, in turn, trained Yujiro Motora , who brought experimental psychology, emphasizing psychophysics, to the Imperial University of Tokyo. Catell, who also studied with eugenicist Francis Galton , went on to found the Psychological Corporation. Wittmer focused on mental testing of children; Scott, on selection of employees.

Structuralism sought to analyze and classify different aspects of the mind, primarily through the method of introspection. In , James wrote an influential book, The Principles of Psychology , which expanded on the realm of structuralism, memorably described the human " stream of consciousness ", and interested many American students in the emerging discipline. This approach is based upon the idea that individuals experience things as unified wholes.

Rather than breaking down thoughts and behavior into smaller elements, as in structuralism, the Gestaltists maintained that whole of experience is important, and differs from the sum of its parts. Other 19th-century contributors to the field include the German psychologist Hermann Ebbinghaus , a pioneer in the experimental study of memory, who developed quantitative models of learning and forgetting at the University of Berlin , [35] and the Russian-Soviet physiologist Ivan Pavlov , who discovered in dogs a learning process that was later termed " classical conditioning " and applied to human beings.

The first meeting of the International Congress of Psychology sponsored by the International Union of Psychological Science took place in Paris, in August , amidst the World's Fair celebrating the centennial of the French Revolution. William James was one of three Americans among the four hundred attendees. The International Congress continued to be held, at different locations in Europe, with wider international participation.

University of Michigan psychologist Dorwin Cartwright reported that university researchers began large-scale propaganda research in —, and "the last few months of the war saw a social psychologist become chiefly responsible for determining the week-by-week-propaganda policy for the United States Government.

Freudian psychoanalysts were expelled and persecuted under the anti-Jewish policies of the Nazi Party , and all psychologists had to distance themselves from Freud and Adler.

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This psychotherapy aimed to align suitable Germans with the overall goals of the Reich; as described by one physician: "Despite the importance of analysis, spiritual guidance and the active cooperation of the patient represent the best way to overcome individual mental problems and to subordinate them to the requirements of the Volk and the Gemeinschaft.

Alexander Mitscherlich founded a prominent applied psychoanalysis journal called Psyche and with funding from the Rockefeller Foundation established the first clinical psychosomatic medicine division at Heidelberg University.

In , psychology was integrated into the required studies of medical students. Thus, university psychology departments trained large numbers of students, for whom positions were made available at schools, workplaces, cultural institutions, and in the military. An especial focus was pedology , the study of child development, regarding which Lev Vygotsky became a prominent writer. Luria , and Aron Zalkind were denounced; Ivan Pavlov posthumously and Stalin himself were aggrandized as heroes of Soviet psychology.

There emerged a new field called " engineering psychology " which studied mental aspects of complex jobs such as pilot and cosmonaut. Interdisciplinary studies became popular and scholars such as Georgy Shchedrovitsky developed systems theory approaches to human behavior.

Chinese psychologists were encouraged to focus on education and language learning, with the aspiration that education would enable modernization and nationalization. John Dewey, who lectured to Chinese audiences in —, had a significant influence on this doctrine.

Chinese psychologists elaborated on Lenin's model of a "reflective" consciousness, envisioning an "active consciousness" pinyin : tzu-chueh neng-tung-li able to transcend material conditions through hard work and ideological struggle. They developed a concept of "recognition" pinyin : jen-shih which referred the interface between individual perceptions and the socially accepted worldview failure to correspond with party doctrine was "incorrect recognition".

Most leading psychologists were educated in the United States, and the first concern of the Academy was re-education of these psychologists in the Soviet doctrines. Child psychology and pedagogy for nationally cohesive education remained a central goal of the discipline.

Several associations including the Association of Black Psychologists and the Asian American Psychological Association have arisen to promote non-European racial groups in the profession. It holds the Interamerican Congress of Psychology and had 1, members in year The European Federation of Professional Psychology Associations, founded in , represents 30 national associations with a total of , individual members.

At least 30 other international groups organize psychologists in different regions. Parapsychology, hypnotism, and psychism were major topics of the early International Congresses.

But students of these fields were eventually ostractized, and more or less banished from the Congress in — Philosopher of science Thomas Kuhn 's critique implied psychology overall was in a pre-paradigm state, lacking the agreement on overarching theory found in mature sciences such as chemistry and physics.

Skeptics have suggested that personality, thinking, and emotion, cannot be directly measured and are often inferred from subjective self-reports, which may be problematic. Experimental psychologists have devised a variety of ways to indirectly measure these elusive phenomenological entities. Critics inside and outside the field have argued that mainstream psychology has become increasingly dominated by a "cult of empiricism" which limits the scope of its study by using only methods derived from the physical sciences.

Jean Grimshaw, for example, argues that mainstream psychological research has advanced a patriarchal agenda through its efforts to control behavior. Psychiatrists and neuropsychologists work at the interface of mind and body. Using convenience sampling increases the risk that the results will not generalize because it does not use random sampling. Researchers typically study populations because it is often too difficult to study samples.

Researchers typically study samples because it is often too difficult to study populations. Researchers typically include both samples and populations in their research.

Researchers typically avoid studying both populations and samples. A population is the group that researchers want to generalize about. However, because populations are usually very large, psychologists typically study a sample i.

Once the sample has been studied, then the results may be generalized to the population as a whole. In order for a sample to generalize to a population psychologists prefer to use random sampling and large sample sizes whenever possible. The idea of random sampling is distinct from random assignment, which is a technique used in experiments to make groups as similar as possible before manipulating the independent variable.

Obtaining a true random sample can be extremely difficult to do. In practice, psychologists are more likely to settle for convenience samples, which are samples of individuals that are the most readily available. Because of the artificial nature of the laboratory research, the results sometimes have low ecological validity, which is the degree to which the results of a laboratory study can be applied to or repeated in the natural environment.

One day, her boss tells her that researchers will be in the office to observe productivity. Because she knows she is being observed, Ursula finds that she is working harder than she normally does. What is this an example of? The Hawthorne effect is a term used to describe situations in which behaviour changes as a result of being observed. When studying human behaviour, a major concern is demand characteristics, inadvertent cues given off by the experimenter or the experimental context that provide information about how participants are expected to behave.

Demand characteristics can range from very subtle to obvious influences on the behaviour of research participants. When the interviewer asks Louis whether he has used illegal drugs in the last 6 months, he lies and says 'no' because he doesn't want the interviewer to have a poor opinion of him.

Louis's response is an example of. Socially desirable responding occurs when research participants respond in ways that increase the chances that they will be viewed favourably. This type of bias is particularly relevant when the study involves an interview in which the researcher has face-to-face contact with the volunteers.

Despite rumours to the contrary, the results suggest that fewer than ten percent of her classmates have tried the drug. What is the most likely explanation for her findings? People being interviewed often change their answers to increase the chances that they will be viewed favourably. Her dorm mates did not understand the question. Alex did not calculate the findings correctly.

Surveys are not an acceptable means to gather new information.

She is pretty confident that she knows the true intent of the study and is trying to answer the questions accordingly. A common pitfall in experiments, Eila is falling prey to.

Both researchers and participants can be affected by bias. If procedures are not used to reduce its impact, biases can alter the results of an experiment and lead researchers to draw incorrect conclusions. Therefore, a researcher has to design an experiment that measures the influence of. The placebo effect is a measureable and experienced improvement in health or behaviour that cannot be attributable to a medication or treatment.

Wilkins randomly assigns subjects to one of two groups. He is interested in the effects of caffeine on anxiety levels. He gives subjects in the first group an extra two cups of coffee a day for six months. The second group receives an extra two cups of decaffeinated coffee a day for the same time period. Importantly, subjects do not know whether they are being given regular or decaffeinated coffee.

By providing one group with decaffeinated coffee, Dr. Wilkins is trying to account for which potential element of the experiment? In this example, subjects drinking coffee may act more anxiously simply because they expect coffee to make them anxious. Because subjects do not know whether they are receiving regular or decaffeinated coffee, Dr.

Wilkins can control for this effect. She danced, sang karaoke, and even played the "Rock Band" video game—all behaviours that she had never exhibited in public before. She had been drinking the "punch" all night long, which she was told contained high levels of alcohol.

Lisa was quite surprised to find out the next morning that the punch did NOT contain any alcohol. What concept may explain Lisa's behaviour? Lisa's change in behaviour after drinking the punch is similar to the reaction of patients when given a placebo that they expect to improve their health.

The best technique for reducing the social desirability bias is by providing anonymity and confidentiality to the volunteers. Random sampling, random assignment, and peer review generally cannot control for the social desirability bias. In a single-blind study, only the participants are prevented from knowing the true purpose of the study and which type of treatment they are receiving for example, a placebo or a drug. In contrast, in a double-blind study, both the participants and the experimenters are "blind" to the exact treatment each participant receives until after the study has concluded.

In a double-blind study, neither the participant nor the experimenter knows the exact treatment for any individual. The experimenter does not know but the participant does know what condition the participant is assigned to.

The experimenter and the participant both know what condition the participant is assigned to. The experimenter knows but the participant does not know what condition the participant is assigned to.

Neither the experimenter nor the participant knows what condition the participant is assigned to. Peer reviewers critique the methods and results of research articles submitted to journals and make recommendations to the editor regarding the merits of the research.

In this process, the editors and reviewers serve as gatekeepers for the discipline, ensuring that the best research is made public. Incorrect results would often go uncorrected. Demand characteristics would have larger effect on data. The Hawthorne effect would increase. Samples would be less representative of the populations they came from. Replication is the process of repeating a study and finding a similar outcome each time.

This is part of the self-correcting process of science that helps to identify incorrect results. This is an example of which type of evidence? Although sometimes correct, it is too unreliable to be the basis for scientific conclusions. It is reliable as long as the facts are correct. It takes a long time to collect. It is the basis for most scientific conclusions. It is poor and unreliable. Although sometimes correct, it is too unreliable to be the basis for scientific conclusions, even if the basic facts of the story are correct.

An appeal to authority is the belief in an expert's claim even when no supporting data or scientific evidence is present. Expertise is not actually evidence; the word "expert" describes the person making the claim, not the claim itself. The expert could be mistaken, dishonest, overpaid, or misquoted. Claims based on common sense, tradition, or novelty may be worthy of consideration, but whether something is true or not cannot be evaluated by these standards alone.

Kia says, "Obviously they were spoiled as children, which made them unprepared to become adults. It is based on anecdotal evidence. It is an appeal to authority. It is an appeal to common sense. Nothing; it is a well-supported conclusion. Appeals to common sense are claims that appear to be sound, but lack supporting scientific evidence. They may be worthy of consideration, but whether something is true or not cannot be evaluated by these standards alone. Because there are several types of designs, psychologists must choose the one that best addresses the research question and that is most suitable to the subject of their research.

Recall from Chapter 1 that the goal of scientific research is to test hypotheses, not to prove hypotheses. Also, the goal of science is to obtain objective results, not subjective results.

Descriptive b. Quasi-experimental c. Experimental d. Subjective Correct: Experimental designs are used for determining causeand-effect relationships. A case study is an in-depth report about the details of a specific case. She is thinking about conducting an in-depth study of the child for her dissertation. Sarah is considering which research method? While some of Sarah's research might involve naturalistic observation, it is unlikely that Sarah could study the child in depth using this technique.

Apply terms and concepts of experimental methods to research examples. Case study research is, by definition, immune to the error of making generalizations. Case studies involve far too many people to allow for generalizations. You would be better off using a research design that uses fewer participants. Because a case study involves only one or a few subjects, their actions may be atypical and not representative of a larger group of people or population.

The statistics involved in case study research do not allow one to draw larger conclusions about a population. The main drawback to the case study design is that the findings that seem to apply to one case may not apply to others, so there is no guarantee that the case study can be generalized to other individuals and situations. Analyze the pros and cons of descriptive, correlational, and experimental research designs.

It recreates natural conditions in the laboratory as closely as possible to make an experiment more valid. It involves observing behaviour in its natural context.

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It is basically the same process as objective introspection. It involves observing behaviour in the lab without taking formal notes or using technological equipment to measure the experimental findings. When psychologists engage in naturalistic observation, they unobtrusively observe and record behaviour as it occurs in the subject's natural environment. Any research that takes place in an artificial laboratory setting is, by definition, not naturalistic observation.

Watson wanted to know which gender was better at sharing at the sixth-grade level, so he went to the local middle school to observe lunch periods. This is a form of. When psychologists engage in naturalistic observation, as in this example, they unobtrusively observe and record behaviour as it occurs in the subject's natural environment.

Watson's research is not a case study because he is not studying one student in depth. It also is not an experiment, because he is only observing, not manipulating independent variables. This researcher would best be advised to use the. Naturalistic observation is generally the best method for studying behaviour in natural settings. A case study of one bully or victim would be unlikely to generalize to bullying in general, and correlational and experimental designs are used to study the relationships between two or more variables.

Potter, an English professor, is curious about his students' attitudes toward one of his favourite books. What research method is he most likely to use to gather this information? The survey method is generally the most appropriate when we are interested in people's attitudes or opinions.

A case study would only tell the professor about a single student's attitudes, and correlational and experimental designs are used to study the relationships between two or more variables. Correlational research involves measuring the degree of association between two or more variables.

In this example, the goal is to find the correlation between days missed and grade point average. Experimental designs can also be used to find relationships between variables, but are more complicated and they are generally only used when the goal of the research is to find cause-and-effect relationships. When two variables are related so that the value of the first variable is associated with the value of the second, the two variables are said to be correlated.

This does not necessarily mean that the first variable causes the value of the second variable— an important concept in correlational research is that correlation is a measure of association, not a measure of causality.

Correlations are usually classified as either positive or negative, depending on whether the two variables change in the same direction positive , or are inversely related negative. When an increase in one variable is associated with a decrease in another or vice versa the two variables are said to be negatively correlated. When two variables are positively correlated, an increase in the first variable is associated with an increase in the second variable.

In this example, an increase in studying should be associated with an increase in grade. Which statement correctly illustrates this correlation? The more often you wear your seat belt, the more serious the injury you are likely to receive in an accident. The more you wear your seat belt, the less likely you are to suffer serious injuries in an accident. Wearing your seatbelt prevents you from being injured in an accident.

Failing to wear your seat belt increases the likelihood that you will sustain serious injuries in an accident. A negative correlation means that as one variable increases the other decreases. In this example, the more you wear your seatbelt the less likely you are to be injured.

At first, this may seem the same as saying "wearing seatbelts prevents injury" or "failing to wear seatbelts increases injury," however, these are statements of causality, not simply correlation. A negative correlation between seatbelt wearing and injury could be the result of safe driving habits i. Relationships between two variables i. The other types of graphs listed are not used to visualize correlations. Schott's scatterplot reveals no real patterns or clusters.

In fact, the data seems to fall randomly on the graph. This pattern of results is most likely from which type of correlation? When the dots on a scatterplot do not follow any discernable pattern, it indicates that the correlation between the two variables is close to zero.

Stanhope is trying to determine which type of correlation is represented on his scatterplot, in which nearly all of his data are clustered along a diagonal line running from higher numbers on the left down to lower numbers on the right. Which type of correlation is represented by this pattern? We need more information to draw a conclusion. When the dots on a scatterplot show a pattern that is slanted downward to the right, it indicates that there is a negative correlation between the two variables.

Jones, a sixth-grade science teacher, has tried to predict his students' end-of-theyear grades by looking at their grades from the previous year. Unfortunately, there does not seem to be any systematic relationship between these two variables. The correlation between these two variables is probably.

If there is little to no pattern in the relationship between two variables, the correlation coefficient will be close to zero. Because better dental hygiene is associated with fewer cavities, the correlation between the two variables should be fairly strong and negative. Correlation coefficients can range from —1. The magnitude or strength of a correlation coefficient is indicated by its absolute value.

The closer to an absolute value of 1, the stronger the correlation. While it may at first seem that —. Because correlations are measures of association and not causality, correlational research cannot be used to determine cause-and-effect relationships.

Correlational research is good, however, for finding and describing relationships, and can allow researchers to make predictions about one variable based on its correlation with a second variable.

Illusory correlations are relationships that really only exist in the mind, rather than reality. She is surprised to find out that there is little to no difference between the two months in terms of ice-cream-cone sales. Mary's error is most clearly an example of.

It is the manipulation of variables along with random assignment that allows an experiment to make cause-and-effect conclusions. The other research methods listed do not permit causal inferences. A correlational study involves the manipulation of variables, while an experiment does not. An experiment uses random sampling, while a correlational study uses random assignment.

A correlational study looks at the relationship between independent and dependent variables, while an experiment looks at the relationship between confounding variables. An experiment involves the manipulation of variables, while a correlational study does not. It is the manipulation of variables along with random assignment that allows an experimenter to make cause-and-effect conclusions about the independent and dependent variables.

Correlational studies do not involve specific independent and dependent variables, and do not involve manipulation or random assignment. All research methods generally use variables, operational definitions, and can be used to test predictions made by theories.

The experimental method, however, is the only type of research that involves random assignment. The experimental method is the only type of research that involves random assignment and the manipulation of one or more independent variables.

She is concerned that differences in child rearing, diet, and so forth may affect her results. To minimize these potential preexisting variables, she should be sure to do which of the following? Use random assignment when forming her groups.

Include an independent variable. Include a dependent variable. Assign boys to the experimental group and girls to the control group. In an experiment, it is the random assignment of participants to different groups that insures that the groups are roughly equal. This is important, because without random assignment, preexisting differences between participants could act as confounding variables and end up affecting the results. While the independent and dependent variables are also an important part of the experimental method, they do not help to control for preexisting variables.

It is important to treat all research participants equally so that they feel that they are not being manipulated.

Research ethics forbid any experiment to take place when the participant groups are fundamentally different from each other. It is important so that no major differences between the groups unduly bias the results of the experiment.

This is generally what happens when participants are allowed to choose their own groups. When the groups are different before the research begins, any changes in the dependent variable might be caused by those differences which are called confounding variables.

This problem is usually avoided by using random assignment. In an experiment, the independent variable is the variable that the experimenter manipulates to distinguish between the different groups.

This is in contrast with the dependent variable, which is manipulated as part of the experiment and data from the different dependent variable groups are compared. The goal of an experiment is to determine if manipulating the independent variable affects the dependent variable.

In an experiment, the dependent variable is the observation or measurement that is recorded during the experiment and subsequently compared across all groups. This is in contrast with the independent variable, which is the variable that the experimenter manipulates to distinguish between the different groups.

None of the remaining four faculties will have any posters placed in their classrooms. What is the independent variable in this study?


The dependent variable is the variable which is measured and subsequently compared across all groups. In this example, the goal is to determine if manipulating the posters affects the GPA scores.

He randomly assigns mothers to give birth in a room either with or without aromatherapy candles. What is the independent variable in this example? The goal of an experiment is to determine if manipulating the independent variable affects the dependent. In this example, the goal is to determine if manipulating the room environment with candles will affect the two dependent variables: She randomly assigns students to two groups at the beginning of the semester.

One group receives a bar of chocolate before each test, while the other group receives another type of candy. She compares their scores at the end of the year, and finds that the students who ate the chocolate scored an average of ten points higher on their exams.

What is the dependent variable in this experiment? In this example, the goal is to determine if manipulating what students eat before an exam affects their performance.

One group receives a bar of chocolate before each test, while. What is a fair conclusion that can be drawn from this experiment?

Eating chocolate causes students' test scores to increase. Eating chocolate has no relationship to students' test scores. Eating chocolate may increase students' satisfaction with the class. Eating chocolate makes students happy.

An experiment with random assignment to groups allows researchers to determine cause and effect between the independent and dependent variables. In this example, because the dependent variable was the students' test scores, it can be concluded that eating chocolate increased the test scores. While the chocolate may have also affected the students' satisfaction and happiness, this cannot be concluded based on the experiment's design.

Confounding variables are variables outside of the researcher's control that might affect the results. In an experiment, it is important to avoid or control for confounding variables because they can make it difficult to determine if the independent variable is really affecting the dependent variable or not.

To experimentally investigate this possibility, she randomly assigns administrative assistants to one of the following conditions: Which of the preceding conditions is an example of a control group? Based on this scenario, what would constitute the control? In this example, Ryan normally uses the plastic worm, so this will act as a baseline to compare with the new lure he is "experimenting" with on the lake.

Johansen randomly assigned subjects to three different groups during her last experiment. She then proceeded to give all the participants in the experiment a new study technique designed to enhance their learning for the upcoming test. What critical error did she make during her experiment?

She failed to identify the independent variable. She failed to identify the dependent variable. She failed to include an experimental group. She failed to include a control group. In this example, by giving all of the participants the new study technique, Dr.

Johansen will not have a control group to compare to the subjects with the new technique. While the independent and dependent variables were not explicitly stated in the example, they are clearly the new study technique and the exam performance, respectively.

The experimental group is the group in the experiment that is exposed to the independent variable. This is in contrast to the control group, which receives no manipulation. Quasi-experimental research is a research technique in which the two or more groups that are compared are selected based on pre-determined characteristics, not random assignment.

Quasi-experimental designs are used when the groups that are compared are selected based on pre-determined characteristics and random assignment cannot be used. In this example, participants could be randomly assigned to an experimental group that receives caffeine, alcohol, or is deprived of sleep.

However, it is not possible to randomly assign participants to be male or female. These studies of brainwashing and torture often had very negative effects on the participants. MKUltra was officially ended in Apply the ethical principles of scientific research to examples. A research ethics board REB is a committee of researchers and officials charged with the protection of human research participants at an institution. The REB is intended to protect individuals in two main ways: The committee refuses to approve one study because it feels the possible benefit from the research is too little given the potential risk to the participants.

Kendra's committee is most accurately called an. Mortality salience is classified as a physical risk. Studies that increase mortality salience are unethical. Stress from mortality salience is typically short term and can be an acceptable risk. Studies that increase mortality salience are always acceptable. Making subjects more aware of death mortality salience is sometimes a side effect of measures used in psychological research. While it can cause psychological stress, this tends to be short term.

Therefore, the benefits of a study must be weighed against the risk to participants. Volunteers agree to participate in a study after the purpose, tasks, and risks of the study are explained to them.

REBs must be informed about the purpose, tasks, and risks of a study before they approve it. Researchers agree to be legally responsible for the physical and psychological safety of their participants. Participants must be informed of the results of the study they participated in and give their consent before the research is published.

Research participants must give informed consent. Research participants must be deceived so that they do not know the true nature of the research to which they are contributing. Research participants must be paid for their contribution.

As long as informed consent has been given, research participants may be subjected to any level of physical or psychological pain or discomfort. Participants in psychological research must give informed consent i. This does not mean that informed consent allows researchers to do anything they want. Studies with deception can be approved, but only if the deception is necessary and the risk to participants is minimal. The use of deception has no effect on the likelihood the study will be approved.

Studies that involve deception go through a different approval process. Studies with deception are never approved. Deception can have serious consequences for participants. However, researchers can use deception under most circumstances when it is necessary.

He is engaging in what aspect of a research study? After participating in a study, subjects undergo a full debriefing, in which the researchers explain the true nature of the study, and especially the nature of and reason for any deception.

In contrast, informed consent must be obtained prior to participation. Volunteers have the right to withdraw from the study, at any time, without penalty. The right to give informed consent stays with the participants throughout the entire study. Provide complete anonymity when collecting data.

Erase all confidential data as soon as the results of the study are published. Use a double-blind procedure. Remove any specific information that can be connected with a participant when sharing data. Researchers cannot always guarantee complete anonymity when collecting data, but they must at least provide confidentiality.

There are at least two parts to confidentiality. First, researchers cannot share specific data or observations that can be connected with an individual.


Second, all records must be kept securely for example, in a password-protected database or locked filing cabinet so that identities cannot be revealed unintentionally.

These records should be kept for a reasonable amount of time, even after the study has been published. Nolen wants to know the effects of removing portions of one's hippocampi on long-term memory, in the hopes of one day finding a cure for patients with Alzheimer's disease. The subjects for his study are most likely to be. Some research cannot ethically be conducted on humans, so nonhuman animals most often mice or rats are used instead. When researching human diseases, the closer the animal is to humans, the more likely it is that the results will generalize to people.

Understand why animals are often used in scientific research. Animal research is important for several reasons, but it requires attention to many of the same ethical issues that apply to human research. All animal research must be ended as soon as is possible because it is generally cruel.

Animal research is misguided because psychology is the study of human behaviour. Animal research is useful because risk and discomfort to non-human subjects do not need to be addressed.

There are several reasons to use non-human subjects in psychology research, especially when a procedure would be unethical on humans. However, many of the same ethical considerations for human research also apply to animal research, including the importance of minimizing unnecessary risk and discomfort.

Research on non-humans does not have to be reviewed by ethics committees. Many lab animals have relatively short life spans, so several generations can be observed.

Test Bank for An Introduction to Psychological Science 2nd Canadian Edition

Researchers do not have to justify risk and discomfort by the potential scientific value of the research. There are no advantages of animal research over human research.

Genetic research requires species with much shorter life spans than our own so that several successive generations can be observed. Animal research is reviewed by committees for ethical treatment, which requires any risk or discomfort to be justified, just as it is for human subjects.

Destroy it immediately. Keep it forever. Keep it secure for around 25 to 50 years. Keep it secure for around 3 to 5 years. Once data are reported in a journal or at a conference, they should be kept for a reasonable amount of time—generally, three to five years is acceptable. The purpose for keeping data relates to the public nature of good research.

Other researchers may request access to the data to re-interpret it, or perhaps examine it before doing a replication. Central tendencies b. Inferential statistics c. Distributions d. Descriptive statistics Correct: Descriptive statistics are mathematical tools used primarily to organize and summarize data. While central tendency is a type of descriptive statistic, measures of central tendency only describe the central point of a distribution.

Frequency simply indicates the number of instances of something. Psychologists usually present data in a type of bar graph called a histogram. Like other bar graphs, the vertical axis shows the frequency, or the number of observations that fall within a certain category or range of scores. Apply your knowledge to interpret the most frequently used types of graphs. Many variables display in a normal distribution, such as the scores on most standardized tests or the average high temperature inSault Ste.

Marie, Ontario, throughout the month of January. If she were to graph the distribution, what shape would it have? A positively skewed distribution occurs when the long tail is on the right of the cluster. In this example, the students would be clustered together on the left of the graph, with an increasingly smaller tail of "good" students trailing off to the right.

A negatively skewed distribution occurs when the curve has an extended tail to the left of the cluster. Mode, median, and mean are the three most commonly used measures of central tendency. Range and standard deviation are measures of variability.

What measure of central tendency is she asking about? The mode is the category with the highest frequency that is. In this example, the mode would be whichever category male or female had the highest frequency. Range is not a measure of central tendency. It doesn't matter; they will be the same. For normal distributions, the mean, median, and mode are always equal to each other.

When a distribution is skewed, the mean is pulled away from the centre. On the other hand, the median stays relatively stable, and so it is a better choice for describing central tendency when dealing with skewed data.

Variability is the degree to which scores are dispersed in a distribution. The scores in a distribution with low variability cluster close together. The standard deviation is a measure of variability around the mean.The survey method is generally the most appropriate when we are interested in people's attitudes or opinions. In an experiment, statistical significance implies that the means of the groups are further apart than you would expect them to be by random chance alone.

In this example, an increase in studying should be associated with an increase in grade. Many variables wind up in a normal distribution, such as the scores on most standardized tests or the average high temperature in Moose Jaw, Saskatchewan, throughout the month of January.

When the dots on a scatterplot do not follow any discernable pattern, it indicates that the correlation between the two variables is close to zero. They cannot be repeated by anyone other than the experimenter. Philosopher of science Thomas Kuhn 's critique implied psychology overall was in a pre-paradigm state, lacking the agreement on overarching theory found in mature sciences such as chemistry and physics.

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